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Alberta Ministry of Energy (Alberta Energy). 2008a. Oil Sands Frequently asked Questions. Alberta Government

Alberta Energy. 2008b. Minerals. Government of Alberta (

Alberta Ministry of Environment (AENV). 1999. Surface Water Quality Guidelines for Use in Alberta. Environmental Assurance Division, Science and Standards Branch, Alberta Environment (

AENV. 2003. Water for Life – Alberta’s Strategy for Sustainability. Alberta Environment (

AENV. September 15, 2005. Climate Data. Alberta Environment (

AENV. July 17, 2008. Alberta's River Basins. Alberta Environment (

Alberta Environment and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (AENV and FOC). 2007. Water Management Framework: Instream Flow Needs and Water Management System for the Lower Athabasca River. Alberta Environment, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (

Alberta Ministry of Tourism, Parks and Recreation (MTPR). 2006. Alberta's Boreal Forest Natural Region. Alberta Ministry of Tourism, Parks and Recreation (

Begon, M., J.L. Harper, and C.R. Townsend. 1990. Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities. Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford.

Beschta, R.L. 1996. Suspended Sediment and Bedload. In: Methods in Stream Ecology. F.R. Hauer and G.A. Lamberti (eds). Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.

British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, LandData B.C., and Geographic Data B.C. 1998. Guidelines for Interpreting Water Quality Data Version 1.0. Prepared for the Land Use Task Force, Resources Inventory Committee. (

Campbell, L.M., R.E. Hecky, and S.B. Wandera. 2003a. Stable isotope analyses of food web structure and fish in the Napoleon Gulf and Winam gulfs, Lake Victoria, East Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (suppl 2): 243-258.

Campbell, L.M., R.E. Hecky, J. Nyaundi, R. Muggide, and D.G. Dixon. 2003b. Distribution and food-web transfer of mercury in Napoleon and Winam gulfs, Lake Victoria, East Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29 (suppl 2): 267-283.

Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). 2008. Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. CCME (

Canadian Heritage Rivers System (CHRS). September 11, 2008. Athabasca River. The Canadian Heritage Rivers System (

Carosella, T.L. September 24, 2008. Phosphorus Cycle. California State University Stanislaus, Biology 4050 course website (

Conly, F.M., Crosley, R.W. and J.V. Headley. 2002. Characterizing sediment sources and natural hydrocarbon inputs in the lower Athabasca River, Canada. J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 1: 187-199.

Cummins, K. W. and Klug, M. J. 1979. Feeding Ecology of Stream Invertebrates.

Ducks Unlimited. 2008a. Canada’s Boreal Forest: Challenges to Boreal Wetland Habitats. Ducks Unlimited Canada (

Ducks Unlimited. 2008b. Canada’s Boreal Forest: A vision for and commitment to world-leading conservation by Ducks Unlimited. Ducks Unlimited Canada (

Ducks Unlimited Canada. 2008c. Wetlands—Nature’s Water Filters. Ducks Unlimited Canada (

Dyer, S., J. Grant, R. Lesack, and M. Weber. 2008. Canadian Boreal Initiative. Catching Up: Conservation and Biodiversity Offsets in Alberta’s Boreal Forest. Canadian Boreal Initiative (

Environment Canada. 2004. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines. Environment Canada website. (

Environment Canada. 2005. National Climate Data and Information Archive. Accessed at: on May 14th, 2008.

Environment Canada. 2006. Wetlands. (

Environment Canada. November 12, 2002. Quenching the Peace Athabasca Delta. Science and Environment Bulletin.

Environment Canada. September 11, 2008. Peace-Athabasca Delta, Alberta—Ramsar Site. Environment Canada website. (

Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG). 1998. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Government of the United States of America (

Fitzgerald, J.J. 1978. Black gold with grit. Evergreen Press Limited, Vancouver B.C.

Foote, L. 2007. #133 Roads as Beaver Dams. Transcript of audio interview, Innovation Alberta website. (

GeoStrategis. October 1, 2008. Exploring Beaver Habitat and Distribution with Google Earth: The Longest Beaver Dam in the World. (

Halsey, L. 1999. Appendix B: Natural Wetlands in the Oil Sands Region. In: Guideline for Wetland Establishment on Reclaimed Oil Sands Leases. Oil Sands Wetlands Working Group. September 1999.

Headley, J.V. and D.W. McMartin. 2004. A review of the occurrence and fate of naphthenic acids in aquatic environments. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 39 (8): 1989-2010.

Health Canada. 2006. Dioxins and Furans. Health Canada. (

Hein, F.J., Cotterill, D.K. and H. Berhane. 2000. An Atlas of Lithofacies of the McMurray Formation, Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit, Northeastern Alberta: Surface and Subsurface. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Alberta Geological Survey. Edmonton, Alberta.

Heritage Community Foundation. 2008. The Boreal Forest Region. Alberta Online Encyclopedia, Heritage Community Foundation (

Hicks, F. Nd. Ice Jam Flood Forecasting. Accessed at: on May 15th, 2008.

Hynes, H.B.N. 1970. The Ecology of Running Waters. University of Toronto Press. Toronto.

Joynt, A. and M.G. Sullivan. 2003. Fish of Alberta. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, AB.

Kalff, J. 2002. Prentice Hall, Inc.

Kavanagh (ed). 2006. Hinterland Who’s Who: Canada’s Boreal Forest Hinterland. Blancher, P., Bradbury, S. Cobb, T., Fisher, C., Hannah, K.C., Johns, B., Lane, J., MacIsaac, D., Paszkowski, C., Scrimgeour, G. and S.J. Song. (

Kerkhoven, E. and Gan T.Y. 2008. Development of a Hydrologic Scheme for Use in Land Surface Models and its Application to Climate Change in the Athabasca River Basin. In: Cold Region Atmospheric and Hydrologic Studies. The Mackenzie GEWEX Experience. Chapter 22, pp: 411-433. Spinger Berlin Heidelberg.

Lakehead University. 2007. Boreal Forests of the World. Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment, Lakehead University (

Lindsay, R. and R. Simmons. August 20, 2002. NASA Earth Observatory. The Migrating Boreal Forest.

Mackenzie River Basin Board (MRBB). 2004. State of the Aquatic Ecosystem Report 2003. Saskatchewan Watershed Authority website. (

Mackenzie River Basin Board. 2001. Maps of the Mackenzie River Basin. Mackenzie River Basin Board. (

Mackenzie River Basin Board. 2003. Highlights of the Mackenzie River Basin Board’s State of the Aquatic Ecosystem Report 2003.

Naiman, R.J., Melillo, J.M. and J.E. Hobbie. 1986. Ecosystem Alteration of Boreal Forest Streams by Beaver (Castor Canadensis). Ecology 67(5):1254-1269.

Natural Regions Committee (NRC). 2006. Natural Regions and Subregions of Alberta. Compiled by D.J. Downing and W.W. Pettapiece. Government of Alberta. Pub. No. T/852. (

Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN). 2003. Climate Regions [Köppen] Map. The Atlas of Canada, Third Edition, 1957. Natural Resources Canada (

Natural Resources Canada. 2004. Boreal Forest. The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada (

Natural Resources Canada. February 20, 2007. Birds in the Boreal Forest. (

Natural Resources Canada. 2008a. Environmental Atlas of the Beaufort Coastlands. Natural Resources Canada website. (

Natural Resources Canada. 2008b. The Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada website. (

Natural Resouces Canada. 2008c. Canada's Forests. Image reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services, 2008, and the courtesy of the Canadian Forest Service (

Nearctica 2001. Northern Boreal Forest: Beaver Castor Canadensis. Nearctica (

Neff, J.M., S.A. Stout, and D.G. Gunster. 2005. Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments: Identifying Sources and Ecological Hazard. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 1(1): 22-33.

Nelson, J.S. and M.J. Paetz.1992. The Fishes of Alberta, 2nd Ed. The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, AB.

Nile Basin Transboundary Environmental Action Project. 2007. Nile River Awareness Kit. Accessed at: on May 14th, 2008.

Northwest Territories. Feburay 18, 2008. Wood Bison (Bos bison athabascae). Environment and Natural Resources, Wildlfie Division. (

Northern River Basins Study. 2002. Northern River Basins Study Final Report. Accessed online at on September 10, 2008.

Northern Rivers Ecosystem Initiative. 2002. Synthesis Report. Printed in Canada.

Old Farmer’s Almanac. 2008. The Old Farmer's Almanac. Yankee Publishing Inc., Dublin, NH (

Peace-Athabasca Delta Project Group (PADPG). 1972. The Peace-Athabasca Delta A Canadian Resource, Summary Report 1972. The Peace-Athabasca Delta Project Group. 144 pp.

Pembina Institute. September 11, 2008. Natural history of the Athabasca. The Pembina Institute website. (

Perry, J. and E. Vanderklein. 1996. Water Quality Management of a Natural Resource. Blackwell Publishing. Online version at 639 pp.

Pidwirny, M. 2006. Biology and Physical Geography, University of British Columbia Okanagan (

Pietroniro, A., R. Leconte, B. Toth, D.L. Peters, N. Kouwen, F.M. Conly, and T. Prowse. 2006. Modelling climate change impacts in the Peace and Athabasca catchment and delta: III – integrated model assessment. Hydrological Processes 20(19): 4231-4245.

Poff, N.L., Allan, J.D., Bain, M.B., Karr, J.R., Prestgaard, K.L., Richter, B.D., Sparks, R.E. and J.C. Stromberg. 1997. The Natural Flow Regime. American Institute of Biological Sciences. pp. 769-784.

Prepas, E. and P. Mitchell (eds). 1990. Prepas and Mitchell 1990 of Alberta Lakes. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, AB. 186 pp (

Princeton Ecology Education Services. February 27, 2006. A Food Chain Environmental Problem - Biomagnification. Princeton Ecology Education Services (

Prowse, T.D. 2001. River-ice ecology: I: Hydrologic, geomorphic, and water quality aspects. ASCE Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 15(1): 1-16

Radford University. February 22, 2008. Department of Geography. (

Raven P. H., Evert, R.F. and S.E. Eichorn. 1999. Biology of Plants 6th ed. W.H. Freeman and Company/ Worth Publishers. New York. USA.

Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP). 2005. RAMP Technical Design and Rationale. Prepared for the RAMP Steering Committee by Hatfield Consultants Ltd., Stantec Consulting Ltd., Mack, Slack, and Associates Inc., and Western Resource Solutions. April 2005, revised November 2005.

RAMP. 2008. 2007 Technical Report. Prepared for the RAMP Steering Committee by Hatfield Consultants, Stantec Consulting Ltd., Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., and Western Resource Solutions. April 2008.

Royal Alberta Museum. July 28, 2006. Natural Regions Description.Government of Alberta (

Science Outreach-Athabasca. 2007. Facts about Athabasca River Basin. Science Outreach (

Sexton K. 2004. Hydroelectric Power: What is Hydroelectric Power (Hydropower)? Agricultural and Rural Development. Alberta Government .Lethbridge Alberta. ($department/deptdocs.nsf/all/eng4431)

Talling, J.F. and I.B. Talling. 1965. The chemical composition of African lake waters. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 50: 421-463.
The Canadian Heritage River System. Accessed July 3, 2008. Athabasca River.

Toth, B., Pietroniro, A., Conly F.M. and N. Kouwen. 2006. Modelling climate change impacts in the Peace and Athabasca catchment and delta: I-hydrological model application. Hydrological Processes. Volume 20:29 (4197-4214).

University of Califoria Museum of Paleontology. 2006. The Forest Biome. (

Water Survey of Canada (WSC). May 24, 2006. Environment Canada.

Wetlands International. September 11, 2008. Canada 7: Peace-Athabasca Delta, Alberta. Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands. (

Wetzel, R.G. 2001. Limnology, 3rd edition. Academic Press: London, UK.

World Wildlife Fund. Canada. Viewed March 29, 2008. Canada’s Boreal Forest. World Wildlife Fund Canada (

Yukon Department of Environment. March 25, 2008. Yukon Mammal Series: Snowshoe Hare Lepus americanus



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